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Paris in the 17th century was the largest city in Europe, with a population of half a million, matched in size only by London. It was also a flourishing center of French science and the arts; it saw the founding of the Paris Observatorythe French Academy of Sciences and the first botanical garden in Paris, which also became the first park in Paris open to the public.

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Urban innovations for the city included the first street lighting, the first public transport, the first building code, and the first new aqueduct since Roman times. At the end of the 16th century, Paris was the last fortress of the besieged Catholic Leaguedefended by the soldiers of the King of Spain and the fervently Catholic population.

The royalist army of Henry IV had defeated the Catholic League on the battlefield, and Henry's soldiers were bombarding Paris from the heights of Montmartre and Montfaucon, but, lacking heavy artillery he could not break through the massive walls of the city. In the following weeks, the support for the Catholic League melted away. The Governor of Paris and the Provost of the merchants secretly ed Henry's side, and on March 2 the leader of the League, Charles de Mayenne, fled the city, followed by his Spanish soldiers.

On March 22,Henry IV triumphantly entered the city, ending a war that had lasted for thirty years. Once established in Paris, Henry worked to reconcile himself with the leaders of the Catholic Church. He decreed toleration of the Protestants with the Edict of Nantesand imposed an end to the war with Spain and Savoy. To govern the city, he named Francois Miron, a loyal and energetic administrator, as the new lieutenant of the Chatelet effectively the chief of police from untiland then as Provost of the Saint-Germain-en-Laye mass erotic companions, the highest administrative post, from until He named Jacques Sanguin, another effective administrator, to be Provost of the Merchants from to Paris had suffered greatly during the wars of religion; a third of the Parisians had fled; the population was estimated to bein Henry began a series of major new projects to improve the functioning and appearance of the city, and to win over the Parisians to his side.

It was finished between andand was the first Paris bridge without houses and with sidewalks. Near the bridge, he built La Samaritaine —a large pumping station which provided drinking water, as well as water for the gardens of the Louvre and the Tuileries Gardens. Henry and his builders also decided to add an innovation to the Paris cityscape; three new residential squares, modeled after those in Italian Renaissance cities.

It was built between andand was named Place Royalerenamed Place des Vosges in A third square, Place de France, was planned for a site near the old Temple, but was never built. Place Dauphine was Henry's last project for the city of Paris. The more fervent factions of the Catholic hierarchy in Rome and in France had never accepted Henry's authority, and there were seventeen unsuccessful attempts to kill him. Louis XIII was a few months short of his ninth birthday when his father was assassinated.

His mother, Marie de' Medicibecame Regent and ruled France in his name. She retained many of the ministers of Henry IV, but dismissed the most talented, Sully, because of his abrasive personality. She filled the royal council instead with nobles from her native Florenceincluding Concino Concinithe husband of one of her ladies in waiting, Leonora Doriwho served the superstitious Queen by performing exorcisms and white magic to undo curses and black magic.

Concini became head of Saint-Germain-en-Laye mass erotic companions royal council. Marie de' Medicis decided to build a residence for herself, the Luxembourg Palaceon the sparsely-populated left bank. It was constructed between andand modelled after the Pitti Palace in Florence.

She commissioned the most famous painter of the period, Peter Paul Rubensto decorate the interior with huge canvases of her life with Henry IV now on display in the Louvre. She ordered the construction of a large Italian Renaissance garden around her palace, and commissioned a Florentine fountain-maker, Tommaso Francinito create the Medici Fountain. Water was scarce in the Left Bank, one reason that part of the city had grown more slowly than the Right Bank.

To provide water for her gardens and fountains, Marie de Medicis had the old Roman aqueduct from Rungis reconstructed. Thanks largely to her presence on the left bank, and the availability of water, noble families began to build houses on the left bank, in a neighborhood that became known as the Faubourg Saint-Germain.

Inshe created another reminder of Florence on the right bank; the Cours la Reinea long tree-shaded promenade along the Seine west of the Tuileries Gardens. Louis XIII entered his fourteenth year inand was officially an adult, but his mother and her favorite, Concini, refused to allow him to lead the Royal Council.

On April 24,Louis had his captain of the guards assassinate Concini at the Louvre. Concini's wife was charged with sorcery, beheaded and then burned at that stake on the Place de Greve. Concini's followers were chased from Paris. Louis Saint-Germain-en-Laye mass erotic companions his own favorite, Charles d'Albertthe Duke of Luynes, the new head of the council, and launched a new campaign to persecute the Protestants.

The Duke of Luynes died during an unsuccessful military campaign against the Protestants in Montauban. Louis tried several different he of government before finally selecting the Cardinal de Richelieua protege of his mother, in April Richelieu quickly showed his military skills and gift for political intrigue by defeating the Protestants at La Rochelle in and by executing or sending into exile several high-ranking nobles who challenged his authority.

InMarie de' Medici quarreled again with Richelieu, and demanded that her son choose between Richelieu or her. Marie de' Medici was exiled to Compiegnethen went to live in exile in Brussels, Amsterdam and Cologne, where she died in Richelieu turned his attention to completing and beginning new projects for the improvement of Paris. InRichelieu began construction of a palatial new residence for himself in the center of the city, the Palais-Cardinalwhich on his death was willed to the King and became the Palais-Royal.

Other members of the Nobility of the Robe mostly members of government councils and the courts built their new residences in the Marais, close to the Place Royale. Richelieu helped introduce a new religious architectural style into Paris, inspired by the famous churches in Rome, particularly the church of the Jesuitsand the Basilica of Saint Peter.

Richelieu also built a new chapel for the Sorbonnefor which he had been the proviseuror head of the college. It was constructed between and The dome was inspired by dome of Saint Peter's in Rome, which also inspired the domes at the churches of Val-de-Grace and Les Invalides.

The plan was taken from another Roman church, San Carlo ai Catinari. When Richelieu died, the church became his final resting place. The King and Richelieu became increasingly unpopular with the Parisians. The playwright and poet Pierre Corneille described the feelings of Parisians toward the King and his government in a sonnet written shortly after the King's death; "In his name, ambition, pride, audacity and avarice made our laws: and while He was himself the most just of Kings, injustice ruled throughout his reign.

Richelieu's successor, Cardinal Mazarindecreed a series of heavy new taxes upon the Parisians to finance the ongoing war.

A new law in required those who had built homes close to the city walls to pay heavy penalties; in new tax was imposed on the middle-class to finance a loan to the state ofpounds, and taxes were imposed on all fruits and vegetables brought into the city.

Ina new law required that those who had built homes on property officially belonging to the King would have to re-purchase the rights to the land. InMazarin informed the noble members of three of the highest civil councils in the city, the Grand Council, the Chambre des comptes and the Cour des Aides that they would not be paid any salary for the next four years.

These measures caused a rebellion within the Parlement of Pariswhich was not an elected assembly but a high court made up of prominent noblemen. Faced with the united opposition of the leaders of Paris, Mazarin backed down and accepted many of their proposals, and waited for an opportunity to strike back.

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An arranged a special mass at the Cathedral of Notre Dame, with the presence of the young King, to celebrate the victory, and brought soldiers into the city to line the street for the procession before the ceremony. As soon as the ceremony at Notre-Dame concluded, Mazarin had three prominent members of the Parlement arrested. There were several violent confrontations in the streets between soldiers and the Parisians. The leaders of the Parlement were received at the Palais-Royal, where Anne of Austria and the young King were living, and she agreed, after some hesitation, to release the imprisoned member of the Parlement.

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This was the beginning of the Frondea long struggle between Mazarin and the Parlement of Paris and its supporters, and then between Mazarin and two princes of the royal family. The Parlement declared Mazarin a public enemy and called upon the Parisians to take up arms. The Fronde quickly split into rival factions, while Mazarin did not have the funds to raise an army to defeat it. The standoff between Mazarin and the Fronde continued from until InMazarin made the error of enlisting seven to eight thousand German mercenaries with his own money to fight against the French army.

He summoned the Parlement and leading merchants and clergy, and demanded to be recognized as the leader of the city. On August 19 Mazarin withdrew to Bouillon in the Ardennes and continued his intrigues to win back Paris from there. Rising prices and the scarcity of food in Paris made the government of Frondeurs more and more unpopular.

On September 24, a large demonstration took place outside the Palais-Royal, demanding the return of the King. On October 22 the young King, at the Louvre, issued a decree forbidding the Parlement of Paris to interfere in affairs of state and the royal finances. Mazarin, victorious, returned to Saint-Germain-en-Laye mass erotic companions on February 3, and took charge once again of the government.

He moved his Paris residence from the Palais-Royal to the more secure Louvre: then, inhe moved the royal residence out of the city to Versaillesand came into Paris as seldom as possible. The king named Jean-Baptiste Colbert as his new Superintendent of Buildingsand Colbert began an ambitious building program. To make his intention clear Louis XIV organised a carrousel festival in the courtyard of the Tuileries in Januaryin which he appeared, on horseback, in the costume of a Roman emperorfollowed by the nobility of Paris.

Inside the Louvre his architect Louis Le Vau and his decorator Charles Le Brun created the Gallery of Apollothe ceiling of which featured an allegoric figure of the young king steering the chariot of the Sun across the sky. But another ambitious project, an exuberant de by Bernini Saint-Germain-en-Laye mass erotic companions the eastern facade of the Louvre, was never built; it was replaced by a more severe and less expensive colonnadewhose construction proceeded very slowly due to a lack of funds.

Louis turned his attention more and more to Versailles. On February 10,Louis departed Paris and made his permanent residence in Versailles. In the remaining forty-three years of his reign, he visited Paris just twenty-four times for official ceremonies, usually for no longer than twenty-four hours. While he built new monuments to his glory, the king also took measures to prevent any form of opposition to his will. On March 15,he named Gabriel Nicolas de la Reynie to a new position, the Lieutenant General of Police, with the function of making the city work more efficiently, but also to suppress any opposition or criticism of the king.

The of policemen was quadrupled. Anyone who circulated a pamphlet or flyer critical of the king was subject to whipping, banishment and a sentence to the galleys. On 22 October the king revoked the Edict of Nantes and its promised religious tolerance for Protestants; on the same day demolition of the Protestant church at Charenton began.

Repression of dissident sects d. In his absence, his construction projects within Paris continued.

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Of the two hundred million livres that Louis spent on buildings, twenty million were spent in Paris; ten million for the Louvre and the Tuileries; 3. The city continued to expand. InColbert issued new lettres patentes to enlarge the formal boundaries of the city to the site of the future wall built by Louis XVI inthe Wall of the Farmers General. The nobility built its townhouses in the Faubourg Saint-Germain, which expanded as far as Les Invalides.